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Gonorrhoea Singapore | Shim Clinic

Gonorrhoea Singapore: Gonorrhoea definition / causes / risk factors clinic, Singapore. Private and confidential service. Definitions, references, and latest news.


Gonorrhoea (UK) / gonorrhea (US) is caused by Neisseria gonorrhoeae




Gonorrhoea is caused by the Gram-negative bacterium Neisseria gonorrhoeae. The common sites of infection include the urethra, the endocervix, the rectum, the pharynx and the conjunctiva.



  1. Bignell, C., & FitzGerald, M. (2011). National Guideline on the Diagnosis and Treatment of Gonorrhoea in Adults. Retrieved from
  2. Workowski, K. & Berman, S. (2010). CDC Sexually Transmitted Disease Treatment Guidelines (2010). Retrieved from
  3. McMillan, I.R., Young, H., Ogilvie, M.M., & Scott. R.G. (2002). Clinical Practice in Sexually Transmissible Infections. London: Saunders Ltd.
  4. Cook, R.L., Hutchison, S.L., Østergaard, L., Braithwaite, R.S., & Ness, R.B. (2005). Systematic Review: Non-invasive Testing for Chlamydia Trachomatis and Neisseria Gonorrhoea. Ann Intern Med, 142: 914-925. Retrieved from PubMed.
  5. Tapsall, J.W, Ndowa, F., Lewis, D.A., & Unemo, M. (2009). Meeting the Public Health Challenges of Multi and Extensively-Drug Resistant Neisseria gonorrhoea. Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther, 7:821-34. Retrieved from PubMed.



Sexual risk (of HIV/STD/pregnancy), and what you can do before and after exposure.

Timeline HIV STD Pregnancy
Before exposure
Abstain from sex, Be faithful, or Condom use
Circumcision (males only)
(females only)
HIV PrEP (pre-exposure prophylaxis)
– Stop HIV infection before exposure
STD vaccine:
Hepatitis vaccine
HPV vaccine
STD / HIV exposure
Unsafe sex / unprotected sex:
No condom / Condom broke / Condom slip
0-72 hours HIV PEP (post-exposure prophylaxis)
– Stop HIV infection after exposure
STD testing *
Screening test
– to look for asymptomatic infections
– from previous exposures
Emergency contraception
with the
morning-after pill
(females only)
2 weeks HIV DNA Test
1 month HIV 4th Generation Test
SD Bioline HIV Ag/Ab Combo
– Fingerprick blood sampling.
20 minutes to results
3 months HIV 3rd Generation Test
OraQuick® HIV-1/2 Antibody
– Oral fluid or
– Fingerprick blood sampling.
20 minutes to results
STD testing *
– Full & comprehensive
diagnostic test
– to look for current infections
Watch for HIV Symptoms STD Symptoms
If infected HIV Treatment STD Treatment Abortion

* Males: Do not urinate for at least 4 hours before arriving.
* Females: testing is more accurate when you are not menstruating.