HIV Post-exposure Prophylaxis: Future Research Methodological Challenges and Potential Approaches

Research has played a vital role in changing the face of the medical field. From untreatable diseases to highly contagious diseases, research made wondrous achievements and solved the previously unsolvable. The research on HIV has also provided us with life-saving treatments like a prophylaxis from HIV. The WHO (World Health Organization) convened a meeting in… Continue reading

HIV PEP Drugs: Viread® (tenofovir) nucleotide analogue reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI)

Tenofovir (Viread®) was invented by Antonín Holý from at the Institute of Organic Chemistry and Biochemistry, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic and patented in 1984, making this one of the earliest antiviral drugs. In collaboration with Gilead Sciences and the University of California, it was developed into its current form and was approved for… Continue reading

HIV PEP drugs: Emtriva® (emtricitabine) reverse transcriptase inhibitor

Emtricitabine was developed as a combined effort between Dr. Dennis C. Liotta, Dr. Raymond F. Schinazi, and Dr. Woo-Baeg Choi at Emory university and was patented by Emory through Triangle Pharmaceuticals under the trade name of Emtriva® in 1996. Triangle Pharmaceuticals has been owned by Gilead Sciences since 2003. Emtriva®™ targets the HIV protein reverse transcriptase. By inhibiting… Continue reading

HIV PEP drugs: Kaletra® (lopinavir/ritonavir) viral protease inhibitors

The HIV PEP designer drug Kaletra® (LPV/r) contains the two HIV viral protease inhibitors lopinavir (LPV) and ritonavir (RTV) [Norvir®]. Developed by Abbott laboratories in 2000, it is referred to as a designer drug as it was specifically formulated based on X-ray crystallography structures to specifically target the HIV protease. Both lopinavir and ritonavir inhibit the… Continue reading

A systemic review for choice of HIV PEP treatment on Children with HIV exposure

The Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) is not an adult-only disease but is also known to infect infants and children. The common causes of HIV infections in children are usually accidental needle stick injuries, premastication and sexual assault. Guidelines for adults recommend a base of tenofovir with lamivudine (3TC)/emtricitabine (FTC) and a third drug which is either… Continue reading

HIV Pre-exposure Prophylaxis, Post-Exposure Prophylaxis and Early Treatment: An Integration

With advancements in the field of research and scientific probing, we are continuously getting better treatments and vaccinations for different diseases. Although, there are currently no vaccines which can prevent HIV, scientists have been able to formulate the next best thing – HIV Pre-exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP). A report by the Center of Diseases, Control and… Continue reading

Adherence to HIV post-exposure Prophylaxis and its Side Effects: A study from Ghana

HIV holds a great threat to health care workers as constant exposure may lead to accidental HIV infection in previously un-infected individuals. A timely treatment of HIV Post-exposure Prophylaxis (PEP) is a prevention therapy that has been proven to be highly effective in protecting against occupational HIV infection. Due to its potential toxicities though, a… Continue reading