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Hepatitis A Vaccine Singapore.

Hepatitis A Vaccine Singapore: Hepatitis A Inactivated vaccine jab/shot/injection schedule, to vaccinate against the hepatitis A virus, to immunise against Hepatitis A infection of the liver clinic, Singapore. Private and confidential service. Definitions, references, and latest news.

Contents

Hepatitis A vaccination should be considered for individuals aged ≥1 year who are travelling to countries or areas with moderate to high risk of infection. Those at high risk of acquiring the disease should be strongly encouraged to be vaccinated regardless of where they travel.

Two types of HAV vaccines are currently available internationally:

1) Formaldehyde-inactivated hepatitis A virus vaccines. Inactivated HAV vaccines are used in most countries. Monovalent inactivated HAV vaccines are available in paediatric dose (0.5 ml) for children aged >1 year to 15 years, and in adult dose (1 ml).

2) Live attenuated vaccines (based on H2 and LA-1 HAV strains). These vaccines are manufactured and used mainly in China and sporadically in the private sector in India.

Inactivated hepatitis A vaccines are safe and highly effective. Two doses are necessary to promote long-term protection. Results from mathematical models indicate that, after completion of the primary two-dose series, anti-HAV antibodies may persist for 25 years or more. Serological testing to assess antibody levels after vaccination is not indicated. The Chinese live attenuated hepatitis A vaccines have been shown to be safe and highly protective (95%) against clinical infection for at least 3 years.

A combination hepatitis A/typhoid (Vi CPS ) vaccine, administered as a single dose, confers high levels of protection against both these waterborne diseases.

A combination vaccine that provides protection against both hepatitis A and hepatitis B should be considered for travellers who may be exposed to both organisms (see under Hepatitis B vaccines).

People born and raised in developing countries, and those born before 1945 in industrialized countries, have usually been HAV-infected in childhood and are likely to be immune. For such individuals, it may be cost-effective to test for antibodies to hepatitis A virus (anti-HAV) so that unnecessary vaccination can be avoided.

Type of vaccine: Inactivated or live, both given i.m.

Number of doses: Inactivated vaccine: two; live vaccine: one

Schedule: Inactivated vaccine: two doses, the second dose normally 6 months after the first. If needed, this interval may be extended to 18–36 months).
Live vaccine: one dose. Minimum age for HAV vaccination is 1 year.

Boosters: May not be necessary

Contraindications: Hypersensitivity to previous dose

Adverse reactions: Inactivated vaccine: mild local reaction of short duration, mild systemic reaction. Live vaccine: few reported

Before departure: Inactivated and live vaccines: protection is achieved 2–4 weeks after first dose. Given the long incubation period of hepatitis A (average 2–4 weeks), the vaccine can be administered up to the day of departure and still protect travellers.

Recommended for: All non-immune travellers to countries or areas at risk

Special precautions: None

STD vaccine / hepatitis vaccine shot/jab/injection to prevent some STDs

Vaccine Against Disease Age D
o
s
e
s
Dose schedule Price
per
dose
(SG$)
Havrix™ 1440 Adult Hepatitis A virus Hepatitis A ≥19y 2 m 0 & 6-12 $90/=
Twinrix® Hepatitis A virus
Hepatitis B virus
Hepatitis A
Hepatitis B
1-15y 2 m 0, 6-12 $135/=
≥16y 3 m 0, 1, 6
4 d 0, 7, 21 & m 12
Inactivated / Fractional / Protein / Subunit / Recombinant
Engerix™-B 20 μg Hepatitis B virus Hepatitis B 11-15y 2 m 0, & 6 $50/=
≥20y 3 m 0, 1, & 6
4 m 0, 1, 2, & 12 or
d 0, 7, 21 & m 12
Gardasil® HPV
types 6, 11, 16, & 18
Genital warts
Cervical cancer
9-26y 3 m 0, 2, & 6 or
m 0, 1, & 4
$195/=
Cervarix® HPV
types 16, & 18
(31, 33, & 45)
10-25y 3 m 0, 1, & 6
m 0, 1, & 5
m 0, 2½, 12
$195/=
V503 HPV
types 6, 11, 16, 18,
31, 33, 45,
52, & 58
3 m 0, 2, & 6 or
m 0, 1, & 4
$???/=

Hepatitis Vaccine Schedule

Hepatitis A
antibody
test
Hepatitis B
antibody
test
0 mo.1 mo.6 mo.7 mo.
00Twinrix®
vaccine
1st dose
Twinrix®
vaccine
2nd dose
Twinrix®
vaccine
3rd dose
Hepatitis A&B
antibody
test
0<100Twinrix®
vaccine
1st booster
Hepatitis B
antibody
test
Hepatitis A
vaccine
2nd dose
Hepatitis A
antibody
test
0≥100Hepatitis A
vaccine
1st dose
Hepatitis A
vaccine
2nd dose
Hepatitis A
antibody
test
+0Hepatitis B
vaccine
1st dose
Hepatitis B
vaccine
2nd dose
Hepatitis B
vaccine
3rd dose
Hepatitis B
antibody
test
+<100Hepatitis B
vaccine
1st booster
Hepatitis B
antibody
test
+≥100

Hepatitis B infection is caused by the Hepatitis B virus and is usually screened for by detecting HBsAg in the blood. Immunity may be discerned by detecting HBsAb, and if absent, the Hepatitis B vaccine or Twinrix® vaccine may be given.

  • The hepatitis B virus is 100 times more infectious than HIV, the virus that causes AIDS, and infects about 10 times more people than HIV worldwide.
  • Hepatitis B virus infects the liver, and more than 350 million people in the world are lifelong hepatitis B virus carriers.
  • Long-term hepatitis B virus infection causes at least one million premature deaths every year from cirrhosis of the liver or liver cancer. It is second only to tobacco as the leading cause of cancer in humans.
  • Among the Hepatitis B carriers, 25% will develop serious liver diseases, including chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma.
  • The hepatitis B virus can be passed from an infected mother to her baby during childbirth, 1 in 20 Singaporeans are chronically infected with hepatitis B virus.
TORCH

TORCH complex is a medical acronym for a set of perinatal infections (i.e. infections that are passed from a pregnant woman to her fetus), that can lead to severe fetal anomalies or even fetal loss.
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