HIV | Shim Clinic, Singapore | HIV STD TESTING TREATMENT™
HIV Clinic Singapore: HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) clinic, Singapore. Private and confidential service. Definitions, references, and latest news.
Keywords: HIV Clinic Singapore, Singapore HIV Clinic, HIV Singapore, Singapore HIV, HIV.
Table of Contents HIV is the abbreviation for the human immunodeficiency virus, which causes the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome
HIV symptoms which may present in acute HIV infection: These are nonspecific symptoms and can present with other infections; consequently, they are unreliable indicators of HIV infection.
Remember, there is no HIV cure.
HIV window period is the time from HIV infection until a HIV Test can detect any change. Within the HIV window period, the HIV Test would be negative. During this period, the HIV viral load is extremely high, thus making the person highly infectious.
References HIV Test
- 4 weeks after exposure, a negative 4th generation HIV ELISA Test "is very reassuring / highly likely to exclude HIV infection."
- 12 weeks after exposure, a negative 3rd generation HIV ELISA Test "would definitively exclude HIV infection."
| Notes || Sampling Method |
Time to Results
Cost / Price
| 0-72 hours |
No test available
| || |
| 2 weeks (as short as 10-12 days) |
HIV DNA test
- A PCR (polymerase chain reaction) NAT (nucleic acid test) for HIV-1 proviral DNA, therefore a HIV DNA Test.
- Method: Proviral DNA Polymerase Chain Reaction (Roche Amplicor HIV-1 DNA Test, V1.5) This test uses primers SK145 and SKCC1B to define a sequence of 155 nucleotides within a highly conserved region of the HIV-1 gag gene.
- Usually used for the early diagnosis of HIV infection in neonates born to HIV+ mothers. As maternal antibodies circulate in the child for several months, the HIV antibody test would be positive.
- Also used for early HIV diagnosis in adults.
| 1 month |
HIV combo test
| || Fingerprick |
HIV rapid test
| 1 month |
HIV duo test
| || Venipuncture|
| 3 months |
| || HIV oral test /|
HIV saliva test /
HIV rapid test
| 3 months |
HIV blood test
| || Venipuncture |
HIV western blot test
| || Venipuncture |
HIV RNA test
| || Venipuncture|
HIV ELISA (Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) test generations:
References HIV rapid test (20 minutes to results) Two types are available:
- 1st generation: HIV-1 IgG antibody
- 2nd generation: HIV-1 & HIV-2 IgG antibodies
- 3rd generation: HIV-1 & HIV-2 IgG & IgM antibodies
- 4th generation: HIV-1 & HIV-2 IgG & IgM antibodies and HIV p24 antigen
Note: If the clinic attendance is only for the HIV rapid test, then consultation fees are not added.
References HIV PCR (polymerase chain reaction) NAT (nucleic acid test) HIV Risk (2009 figures)
Estimated HIV transmission risk per exposure for specific activities and events
Sources: vaginal sex;1 anal sex;2 fellatio;3 2 mother-to-child;4 other activities.5
|Activity ||Risk-per-exposure |
|Vaginal sex, female-to-male, studies in high-income countries ||0.04% (1:2380) |
|Vaginal sex, male-to-female, studies in high-income countries ||0.08% (1:1234) |
|Vaginal sex, female-to-male, studies in low-income countries ||0.38% (1:263) |
|Vaginal sex, male-to-female, studies in low-income countries ||0.30% (1:333) |
|Vaginal sex, source partner is asymptomatic ||0.07% (1:1428) |
|Vaginal sex, source partner has late-stage disease ||0.55% (1:180) |
|Receptive anal sex amongst gay men, partner unknown status ||0.27% (1:370) |
|Receptive anal sex amongst gay men, partner HIV positive ||0.82% (1:123) |
|Receptive anal sex with condom, gay men, partner unknown status ||0.18% (1:555) |
|Insertive anal sex, gay men, partner unknown status ||0.06% (1:1666) |
|Insertive anal sex with condom, gay men, partner unknown status ||0.04% (1:2500) |
|Receptive fellatio ||Estimates range from 0.00% to 0.04% (1:2500) |
|Mother-to-child, mother takes at least two weeks antiretroviral therapy ||0.8% (1:125) |
|Mother-to-child, mother takes combination therapy, viral load below 50 ||0.1% (1:1000) |
|Injecting drug use ||Estimates range from 0.63% (1:158) to 2.4% (1:41) |
|Needlestick injury, no other risk factors ||0.13% (1:769) |
|Blood transfusion with contaminated blood ||92.5% (9:10) |
HIV Risk (2005 figures)
- Boily MC et al. Heterosexual risk of HIV-1 infection per sexual act: systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies. Lancet Infect Dis 9(2): 118-129, 2009
- Vittinghoff E et al. Per-contact risk of human immunodeficiency virus transmission between male sexual partners. American Journal of Epidemiology 150: 306-311, 1999
- Del Romero J et al. Evaluating the risk of HIV transmission through unprotected orogenital sex. AIDS 16(9): 1296-1297, 2002
- Townsend C et al. Low rates of mother-to-child transmission of HIV following effective pregnancy interventions in the United Kingdom and Ireland, 2000-2006. AIDS 22: 973-981, 2008
- Baggaley RF et al. Risk of HIV-1 transmission for parenteral exposure and blood transfusion. AIDS 20: 805-812, 2006
- HIV & AIDS Information :: How transmission occurs - Estimated risk per exposure
Estimated per-act risk for acquisition of HIV, by exposure route*
*Estimates of risk for transmission from sexual exposures assume no condom use.
|Exposure route||Risk per 10,000|
to an infected source
|Needle-sharing injection-drug use||67||0.67|
|Receptive anal intercourse||50||0.5|
|Percutaneous needle stick||30||0.3|
|Receptive penile-vaginal intercourse||10||0.1|
|Insertive anal intercourse||6.5||0.065|
|Insertive penile-vaginal intercourse||5||0.05|
|Receptive oral intercourse†||1||0.01|
|Insertive oral intercourse†||0.5||0.005|
†Source refers to oral intercourse performed on a man.
References HIV risk (2002 figures)
HIV Risk Statistics (chances of getting HIV)
|HIV Risk Factors ||HIV Transmission Probability |
|Needle stick injury3 ||1/300 |
|Receptive anal intercourse4 ||1/100 |
|Receptive vaginal intercourse5 ||1/1000 |
|Insertive vaginal intercourse4 ||1/2000 |
|Insertive anal intercourse4 ||1/2500 |
|Receptive fellatio with ejaculation4 ||1/2500 |
|Sharing needles6 ||1/150 |
HIV prevention / HIV PEP (post-exposure prophylaxis) treatment can prevent you from getting an HIV infection, and turning HIV positive.
- Cardo DM, Culver DH, Ciesielski CA, et al. A Case-Control Study of HIV Seroconversion in Health Care Workers after Percutaneous Exposure. N Engl J Med. 1997;337:1485-1490.
- Katz MH, Gerberding JL. Management of occupational and nonoccupational postexposure HIV prophylaxis. Current Inf Dis Reports. 2002;4:543-549.
- Gerberding JL. Prophylaxis for Occupational Exposure to HIV. Ann Intern Med. 1996;6:497-501
- Vitinghoff E, Douglas J, Judon F, et al. Per-Contact Risk of Human Immunodificiency Virus Transmision between Male Sexual Partners. Am J Epidemiol. 1999;150:306-311.
- Peterman TA, Stoneburner RL, Allen JR, et al. Risk of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Transmission From Heterosexual Adults With Transfusion-Associated Infections. JAMA. 1988;259:55-58. [Erratum. JAMA. 1989;262:502]
- Kaplan EH, Heimer R. A Model-Based Estimate of HIV Infectivity via Needle Sharing. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 1992;5:1116-1118.
Individuals are eligible for HIV PEP Treatment if all the following criteria are met:
Prompt antiviral therapy may reduce the risk of HIV transmission by as much as 80%.
- less than 72 hours has elapsed since exposure;
- the exposed individual is not known to be HIV infected;
- the person who is the source of exposure is HIV infected or has unknown HIV status;
- mucous membrane or non-intact skin was exposed to a potentially infectious body fluid;
For optimal efficacy, antiretroviral therapy should be started as soon as possible, ideally within 1 hour of exposure. So that you can remain HIV negative.
The medications and dosages are the same as those used for lifelong treatment of HIV patients. However, for HIV PEP treatment, it is taken for only a month.
References Drugs commonly used in HIV PEP: References TORCH
(of HIV/STD/pregnancy), and what you can do before and after exposure.
Zeroing in on the Needs of Women and Young People – World AIDS Day 2013 - 01 December 2013
Tue, 10 Dec 2013 16:33:08 +0100 | UNFPA News
Today, as we mark World AIDS Day, we can point to significant progress in the global response to the epidemic on the road to reaching the goals of zero new infections, zero discrimination and zero AIDS-related deaths. Worldwide, the number of new HIV infections continues to fall, more people have access to antiretroviral treatment and, as a result, fewer people are dying of AIDS. (Source: UNFPA News)
Young Women and HIV in Guyana: Asserting their Right to Protect Themselves - 30 November 2013
Tue, 10 Dec 2013 16:33:08 +0100 | UNFPA News
On World AIDS Day 2013 , we report on Women Across Differences, a Guyanese grassroots organization that is empowering young women to protect themselves against HIV and early pregnancies, giving them the confidence to assert themselves in life-threatening situations. (Source: UNFPA News)
Scale up viral load monitoring to improve HIV treatment outcomes
Tue, 10 Dec 2013 15:56:00 +0100 | MSF News
Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) is calling for the scale-up of HIV viral load treatment monitoring in order to help improve treatment outcomes. At the International Conference on AIDS and STIs in Africa (ICASA) in Cape Town, South Africa, MSF reported new findings on the benefits of viral load monitoring for people on antiretroviral therapy (ART) and strategies to reduce the costs.
Africa: Very Far From End of Aids
Tue, 10 Dec 2013 12:56:28 +0100 | AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine
[Health-e]UNAIDS talk about the end of AIDS is "misleading and potentially irresponsible," said Section27 director Mark Heywood. (Source: AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine)
Ghana: Danpong Pharmacy Screens Free for HIV/Aids
Tue, 10 Dec 2013 12:45:36 +0100 | AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine
[Ghanaian Chronicle]It is a fact that many people are living with HIV/AIDS without knowing it. This has prompted Danpong Pharmacy to organise a free HIV/AIDS screening programme for residents of Spintex, Baatsona and Nungua in Accra. (Source: AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine)
Africa: ARV Intolerance - a Growing Problem for Aids Treatment
Tue, 10 Dec 2013 12:18:33 +0100 | AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine
[IPS]Cape Town, South Africa -New research suggests that some AIDS patients are developing drug intolerance and severe side effects and will now have to switch to new, more expensive antiretroviral regimens. (Source: AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine)
Advanced-stage ovarian cancer treated with targeted nanomedicine
Tue, 10 Dec 2013 11:00:00 +0100 | Health News from Medical News Today
Researchers at Rutgers, the State University of New Jersey, have used a targeted nanomedicine approach to deliver small molecule drugs and successfully treat mice with deadly advanced-stage ovarian cancer.Writing about their work in a recent print issue of the journal Clinical Cancer Research, the team explains how an out-of-control protein called CD44 aids tumor growth and development of drug resistance in advanced-stage ovarian cancer.Ovarian cancer is the deadliest gynecological cancer in the United States. (Source: Health News from Medical News Today)
Zimbabwe: ARV Intolerance New Worry for Aids Treatment
Tue, 10 Dec 2013 09:03:42 +0100 | AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs
[New Zimbabwe]NEW research suggests that some AIDS patients are developing drug intolerance and severe side effects and will now have to switch to new, more expensive antiretroviral regimens. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Africa: Quicker Action Needed On HIV Prevention
Tue, 10 Dec 2013 08:18:08 +0100 | AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs
[VOA]An AIDS advocacy group says donors and researchers need to work smarter and faster to introduce prevention methods that people will actually use. AVAC says not enough has been done to capitalize on lessons learned from recent studies. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Why HIV is a common cause of kidney failure
Tue, 10 Dec 2013 08:00:00 +0100 | Health News from Medical News Today
HIV can infect transplanted kidneys in HIV-positive recipients even in the absence of detectable virus in the blood, according to a study appearing in an upcoming issue of the Journal of the American Society of Nephrology (JASN). The study's investigators also developed a simple urine test to diagnose such infections.HIV is a common cause of kidney failure, and because of this, approximately 900 HIV-infected patients start dialysis each year in the United States. (Source: Health News from Medical News Today)